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5. Sanctions for organizers or participants are restrictions and must thus strictly comply with the three-prong test



  1. Praded v. Belarus, Human Rights Committee, Views of 29 November 2014, UN Doc. CCPR/C/112/D/2029/2011, para. 7.8.
  2. Kudrevičius and Others v. Lithuania, ECtHR, Grand Chamber Judgment of 15 October 2015, para. 149; see also Ezelin v. France, ECtHR, Judgment of 26 April 1991, para. 53; Galstyan v. Armenia, ECtHR, Judgment of 15 November 2007, para. 115.
  3. Gülcü v. Turkey, ECtHR, Judgment of 19 January 2016, para. 116.
  4. Osmani and Others v. the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, ECtHR, Decision of 11 October 2001.
  5. Taranenko v. Russia, ECtHR, Judgment of 15 May 2014, para. 92.
  6. Ezelin v. France, ECtHR, Judgment of 26 April 1991, para. 53.
  7. Kudrevičius and Others v. Lithuania, ECtHR, Grand Chamber Judgment of 15 October 2015, para. 174.
  8. UN Special Rapporteur and Human Rights Centre of the University of Ghent, Third Party Intervention before the European Court of Human Rights in Mahammad Majidli v. Azerbaijan (no. 3) and three other applications, November 2015, para. 15.
  9. Kudrevičius and Others v. Lithuania, ECtHR, Grand Chamber Judgment of 15 October 2015, para. 146 (references omitted).
  10. Novikova and Others v. Russia, ECtHR, Judgment of 26 April 2016, para. 211.
  11. UN Special Rapporteur and Human Rights Centre of the University of Ghent, Third Party Intervention before the European Court of Human Rights in Mahammad Majidli v. Azerbaijan (no. 3) and three other applications, November 2015, paras. 14-16.
  12. UN Special Rapporteur and Human Rights Centre of the University of Ghent, Third Party Intervention before the European Court of Human Rights in Mahammad Majidli v. Azerbaijan (no. 3) and three other applications, November 2015, para. 14; see also IACHR, Report on the Criminalization of the Work of Human Rights Defenders, OEA/Ser.L/V/II, Doc.49/15, 31 December 2015, para. 12.
  13. Kudrevičius and Others v. Lithuania, ECtHR, Grand Chamber Judgment of 15 October 2015, para. 146 (references omitted); see also Akgöl and Göl v. Turkey, ECtHR, Judgment of 17 May 2011, para. 43; Pekaslan and Others v. Turkey, ECtHR, Judgment of 20 March 2012, para. 81; Yılmaz Yıldız and Others v. Turkey, ECtHR, Judgment of 14 October 2014, para. 46.
  14. See, for example, Kasparov and Others v. Russia, ECtHR, Judgment of 3 October 2013, paras. 41-45.
  15. IACHR, Report on the Criminalization of the Work of Human Rights Defenders, OEA/Ser.L/V/II, Doc.49/15, 31 December 2015, para. 127. See also IACHR, Annual Report of the Office of the Special Rapporteur for Freedom of Expression 2008, OEA/Ser.L/V/II.134 Doc. 5, Doc. 5 rev. 1, 25 February 2009, Chapter IV, para. 70.