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  • 11. Notification and authorization procedures for assemblies


    Many jurisdictions provide a procedure to follow for organizers of an assembly. The nature and content of this procedure differs from country to country. An important distinction can be drawn between authorization requirements (see Assembly Section 11.1) (that is, requirements to obtain prior permission from the authorities for an assembly) and prior notification procedures (see Assembly Section 11.6) (that is, procedures to inform the authorities in advance of a planned assembly, without a duty to secure permission).


    1. UN Human Rights Council, First Thematic Report of the Special Rapporteur on the rights to freedom of peaceful assembly and of association, Maina Kiai, UN Doc. A/HRC/20/27, 21 May 2012, para. 28; UN Human Rights Council, Second Thematic Report of the Special Rapporteur on the rights to freedom of peaceful assembly and of association, Maina Kiai, UN Doc. A/HRC/23/39, 24 April 2013, para. 52.
    2. United Nations Special Rapporteur on the rights to freedom of peaceful assembly and of association and Human Rights Centre of the University of Ghent, Third Party Intervention before the European Court of Human Rights in Mahammad Majidli v. Azerbaijan (no. 3) and three other applications, November 2015, paras. 9 and 10.
    3. IACHR, Second Report on the Situation of Human Rights Defenders in the Americas, OEA/Ser.L/V/II, Doc. 66, 31 December 2011, para. 139; see also IACHR, Annual Report of the Office of the Special Rapporteur for Freedom of Expression 2005, OEA/Ser.L/V/II.124 Doc. 7, 27 February 2006, Chapter V, para. 95; IACHR, Annual Report 2015, March 17, 2016, Chapter IV.A, para. 65.
    4. OSCE-ODIHR and Venice Commission, Guidelines on Freedom of Peaceful Assembly, 2nd edn, 2010, Explanatory Notes, para. 118.
    5. AComHPR, Report of the Study Group on Freedom of Association and Assembly in Africa, 2014, p. 63, para. 23.
    6. Galina Youbko v. Belarus, Human Rights Committee, Views of 24 April 2014, UN Doc. CCPR/C/110/D/1903/2009, para. 9.5.
    7. Kudrevičius and Others v. Lithuania, ECtHR, Grand Chamber Judgment of 15 October 2015, para. 147 (references omitted); see also Rassemblement Jurassien and Unité Jurassienne v. Switzerland, EComHR, Decision of 10 October 1979, para. 3.
    8. Kivenmaa v. Finland, Human Rights Committee, Views of 9 June 1994, UN Doc. CCPR/C/50/D/412/1990, para 9.2.
    9. Éva Molnár v. Hungary, ECtHR, Judgment of 7 October 2008, para. 37.
    10. UN Human Rights Council, First Thematic Report of the Special Rapporteur on the rights to freedom of peaceful assembly and of association, Maina Kiai, UN Doc. A/HRC/20/27, 21 May 2012, paras. 26-28.
    11. IACHR, Second Report on the Situation of Human Rights Defenders in the Americas, OEA/Ser.L/V/II, Doc. 66, 31 December 2011, para. 137. In a similar vein, see AComHPR, Report of the Study Group on Freedom of Association and Assembly in Africa, 2014, p. 60, para. 5; OSCE-ODIHR and Venice Commission, Guidelines on Freedom of Peaceful Assembly, 2nd edn, 2010, Guideline 4.1; Kudrevičius and Others v. Lithuania, ECtHR, Grand Chamber Judgment of 15 October 2015, para. 147.
    12. OSCE-ODIHR and Venice Commission, Guidelines on Freedom of Peaceful Assembly, 2nd edn, 2010, Explanatory Notes, para. 115; UN Human Rights Council, UN Human Rights Council, Second Thematic Report of the Special Rapporteur on the rights to freedom of peaceful assembly and of association, Maina Kiai, UN Doc. A/HRC/23/39, 24 April 2013, para. 28; AComHPR, Report of the Study Group on Freedom of Association and Assembly in Africa, 2014, p. 62, para. 9.
    13. OSCE-ODIHR and Venice Commission, Guidelines on Freedom of Peaceful Assembly, 2nd edn, 2010, Guideline 4.1; UN Human Rights Council, Second Thematic Report of the Special Rapporteur on the rights to freedom of peaceful assembly and of association, Maina Kiai, UN Doc. A/HRC/23/39, 24 April 2013, paras. 51-58; AComHPR, Report of the Study Group on Freedom of Association and Assembly in Africa, 2014, p. 62, para. 12.
    14. Vasily Poliakov v. Belarus, Human Rights Committee, Views of 17 July 2014, UN Doc. CCPR/C/111/D/2030/2011, para. 8.3.
    15. Lashmankin and Others v. Russia, ECtHR, Judgment of 7 February 2017, para. 456. Note that request for referral to the Grand Chamber is currently pending (May 2017).
    16. UN Human Rights Council, First Thematic Report of the Special Rapporteur on the rights to freedom of peaceful assembly and of association, Maina Kiai, UN Doc. A/HRC/20/27, 21 May 2012, para. 91; UNGA, Report of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Human Rights Defenders to the General Assembly, Hina Jilani, A/61/312, 5 September 2006, para. 97.
    17. OSCE-ODIHR and Venice Commission, Guidelines on Freedom of Peaceful Assembly, 2nd edn, 2010, Guideline 4.2.
    18. AComHPR, Report of the Study Group on Freedom of Association and Assembly in Africa, 2014, p. 62, para. 13.
    19. Bukta and Others v. Hungary, ECtHR, Judgment of 17 July 2007, para. 36.
    20. Bukta and Others v. Hungary, ECtHR, Judgment of 17 July 2007, paras. 34-38.
    21. Éva Molnár v. Hungary, ECtHR, Judgment of 7 October 2008, para. 38; see also Mehtiyev v. Azerbaijan,ECtHR, Judgment of 6 April 2017, para. 46.
    22. Khalilova and Ayyubzade v. Azerbaijan, ECtHR, Judgment of 6 April 2017, para. 41.
    23. Mehtiyev v. Azerbaijan,ECtHR, Judgment of 6 April 2017, paras. 46-47.
    24. Lashmankin and Others v. Russia, ECtHR, Judgment of 7 February 2017, para. 457.
    25. OSCE-ODIHR and Venice Commission, Guidelines on Freedom of Peaceful Assembly, 2nd edn, 2010, Explanatory Notes, para. 120.
    26. UN Human Rights Council, Second Thematic Report of the Special Rapporteur on the rights to freedom of peaceful assembly and of association, Maina Kiai, UN Doc. A/HRC/23/39, 24 April 2013, para. 29.
    27. Kudrevičius and Others v. Lithuania, ECtHR, Grand Chamber Judgment of 15 October 2015, paras. 150-151 (references omitted).
    28. Éva Molnár v. Hungary, ECtHR, Judgment of 7 October 2008, para. 37.
    29. IACHR, Annual Report 2015, March 17, 2016, Chapter IV.A, para. 130.
    30. Praded v. Belarus, Human Rights Committee, Views of 29 November 2014, UN Doc. CCPR/C/112/D/2029/2011, paras. 7.8 – 7.9.
    31. Navalnyy v. Russia, ECtHR, Judgment of 2 February 2017, para. 49.
    32. Novikova and Others v. Russia, ECtHR, Judgment of 26 April 2016, para. 136.
    33. Gafgaz Mammadov v. Azerbaijan, ECtHR, Judgment of 15 October 2015, para. 61.
    34. Balçik and Others v. Turkey, ECtHR, Judgment of 29 November 2007, paras. 51-53.
    35. Sergey Kuznetsov v. Russia, ECtHR, Judgment of 23 October 2008, para. 43.
    36. Tahirova v. Azerbaijan, ECtHR, Judgment of 3 October 2013, paras. 71-75.
    37. Oya Ataman v. Turkey, ECtHR, Judgment of 5 December 2006, para. 41; Balçik and Others v. Turkey, ECtHR, Judgment of 29 November 2007, para. 51; Aytaş and Others v. Turkey, ECHR, Judgment of 8 December 2009, para. 31; Tahirova v. Azerbaijan, ECtHR, Judgment of 3 October 2013, para. 73.
    38. Oya Ataman v. Turkey, ECtHR, Judgment of 5 December 2006, para. 41. See also Balçik and Others v. Turkey, ECtHR, Judgment of 29 November 2007, para. 51.
    39. Oya Ataman v. Turkey, ECtHR, Judgment of 5 December 2006, paras. 39-42.
    40. Éva Molnár v. Hungary, ECtHR, Judgment of 7 October 2008, para. 43.
    41. Éva Molnár v. Hungary, ECtHR, Judgment of 7 October 2008, para. 43 (references omitted).
    42. Kudrevičius and Others v. Lithuania, ECtHR, Grand Chamber Judgment of 15 October 2015, para. 151.
    43. Oya Ataman v. Turkey, ECtHR, Judgment of 5 December 2006, paras. 41-43; Balçik and Others v. Turkey, ECtHR, Judgment of 29 November 2007, paras. 51-53; Aytaş and Others v. Turkey, ECHR, Judgment of 8 December 2009, paras. 31-33.
    44. UN Human Rights Council, Second Thematic Report of the Special Rapporteur on the rights to freedom of peaceful assembly and of association, Maina Kiai, UN Doc. A/HRC/23/39, 24 April 2013, para. 29.
    45. UN Special Rapporteur, amicus curiae brief before the High Court of South Africa, Western Cape Division, in Case No. A431/15, 31 March 2017, paras. 62-63.
    46. AComHPR, Report of the Study Group on Freedom of Association and Assembly in Africa, 2014, p. 75, para. 53.
    47. Ziliberberg v. Moldova, ECtHR, Decision of 4 May 2004, para. 2. See also Skiba v. Poland, ECtHR, Decision of 7 July 2009; Rai and Evans v. the United Kingdom, ECtHR, Decision of 17 November 2009; Kudrevičius and Others v. Lithuania, ECtHR, Grand Chamber Judgment of 15 October 2015, para. 149.
    48. Kudrevičius and Others v. Lithuania, ECtHR, Grand Chamber Judgment of 15 October 2015, para. 149; see also Ezelin v. France, ECtHR, Judgment of 26 April 1991, para. 53; Galstyan v. Armenia, ECtHR, Judgment of 15 November 2007, para. 115.
    49. Novikova and Others v. Russia, ECtHR, Judgment of 26 April 2016, para. 195.
    50. Novikova and Others v. Russia, ECtHR, Judgment of 26 April 2016, para. 199.
    51. Novikova and Others v. Russia, ECtHR, Judgment of 26 April 2016, para. 211.
    52. See, for example, Ziliberberg v. Moldova, ECtHR, Decision of 4 May 2004, para. 2; Hyde Park and Others v. Moldova (Nos. 5 and 6), ECtHR, Judgment of 14 September 2010, para. 47.
    53. Hyde Park and Others v. Moldova (Nos. 5 and 6), ECtHR, Judgment of 14 September 2010, para. 47.
    54. Praded v. Belarus, Human Rights Committee, Views of 29 November 2014, UN Doc. CCPR/C/112/D/2029/2011, para. 7.9; see also Androsenko v. Belarus, Human Rights Committee, Views of 30 March 2016, UN Doc. CCPR/C/116/D/2092/2011, para. 7.6.
    55. UN Human Rights Council, First Thematic Report of the Special Rapporteur on the rights to freedom of peaceful assembly and of association, Maina Kiai, UN Doc. A/HRC/20/27, 21 May 2012, para. 42; UN Human Rights Council, Second Thematic Report of the Special Rapporteur on the rights to freedom of peaceful assembly and of association, Maina Kiai, UN Doc. A/HRC/23/39, 24 April 2013, para. 64.
    56. IACHR, Second Report on the Situation of Human Rights Defenders in the Americas, OEA/Ser.L/V/II, Doc. 66, 31 December 2011, para. 139; IACHR, Annual Report 2015, March 17, 2016, Chapter IV.A, para. 130.
    57. OSCE-ODIHR and Venice Commission, Guidelines on Freedom of Peaceful Assembly, 2nd edn, 2010, Recommendation 4.6 and Explanatory Notes, paras. 66 and 132-140.
    58. AComHPR, Report of the Study Group on Freedom of Association and Assembly in Africa, 2014, p. 25, para. 21.
    59. AComHPR, Draft Guidelines on Freedom of Association and Assembly in Africa, 2017, Guideline 31.
    60. UN Human Rights Council, Second Thematic Report of the Special Rapporteur on the rights to freedom of peaceful assembly and of association, Maina Kiai, UN Doc. A/HRC/23/39, 24 April 2013, para. 48.
    61. Bączkowski and Others v. Poland, ECtHR, Judgment of 3 May 2007, paras. 81-83. See also Alekseyev v. Russia, ECtHR, Judgment of 21 October 2010, para. 98; Genderdoc-M v. Moldova, ECtHR, Judgment of 12 June 2012, paras. 35-38.
    62. Bączkowski and Others v. Poland, ECtHR, Judgment of 3 May 2007, para. 67.
    63. Bączkowski and Others v. Poland, ECtHR, Judgment of 3 May 2007, paras. 81-83. See also Alekseyev v. Russia, ECtHR, Judgment of 21 October 2010, para. 98; Genderdoc-M v. Moldova, ECtHR, Judgment of 12 June 2012, paras. 35-38.
    64. Lashmankin and Others v. Russia, ECtHR, Judgment of 7 February 2017, paras. 360-61.